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U.S. Job Openings Little Changed at 5.6 Million in January – Annual Hires Flat – Quits Up In 2016

Job openings were little changed at 5.6 million on the last business day of January 2017. Over the month, hires and separations were little changed at 5.4 million and 5.3 million, respectively. Annual levels and rates for 2016 are now available.

JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER – JANUARY 2017

The number of job openings was little changed at 5.6 million on the last business day of January, the 
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Over the month, hires and separations were also little 
changed at 5.4 million and 5.3 million, respectively. Within separations, the quits rate was little changed 
at 2.2 percent and the layoffs and discharges rate was unchanged at 1.1 percent. This release includes 
estimates of the number and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the nonfarm sector by 
industry and by four geographic regions. The release also includes 2016 annual estimates for hires and 
separations. The annual number of hires at 62.7 million in 2016 was essentially the same as in 2015. The 
annual number of quits at 36.1 million increased in 2016 while the annual number of layoffs and 
discharges at 19.9 million declined.

Job Openings

On the last business day of January, there were 5.6 million job openings, little changed from December. 
The job openings rate was 3.7 percent in January. The number of job openings was little changed for 
total private and for government. Job openings increased in professional and business services 
(+136,000) and real estate and rental and leasing (+67,000) but decreased in federal government 
(-37,000). The number of job openings was little changed in all four regions. (See table 1.)

Hires

The number of hires was essentially unchanged at 5.4 million in January. The hires rate was 3.7 percent. 
The number of hires was little changed for total private and for government. Hires increased in other 
services (+54,000) and finance and insurance (+41,000). The number of hires was little changed in all 
four regions. (See table 2.)

Separations

Total separations includes quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Total separations is 
referred to as turnover. Quits are generally voluntary separations initiated by the employee. Therefore, 
the quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’ willingness or ability to leave jobs. Layoffs and 
discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the employer. Other separations includes separations 
due to retirement, death, disability, and transfers to other locations of the same firm.

There were 5.3 million total separations in January, little changed from December. The total 
separations rate in January was 3.6 percent. The number of total separations was little changed for total 
private and for government. Total separations increased in finance and insurance (+39,000). The number 
of total separations was little changed in all four regions. (See table 3.)

The number of quits edged up to 3.2 million in January. The quits rate was 2.2 percent. Over the month, 
the number of quits edged up for total private (+129,000) and was little changed for government. Quits 
increased in other services (+33,000), finance and insurance (+31,000), and real estate and rental and 
leasing (+24,000). The number of quits increased in the Midwest (+92,000) and West (+92,000) regions. 
(See table 4.)

There were 1.6 million layoffs and discharges in January, unchanged from December. The layoffs and 
discharges rate was 1.1 percent in January. The number of layoffs and discharges was little changed for 
total private and for government. The layoffs and discharges level increased in accommodation and food 
services (+69,000), transportation, warehousing, and utilities (+27,000), and mining and logging 
(+7,000). Layoffs and discharges were little changed in all four regions. (See table 5.)

In January, the number of other separations was little changed for total nonfarm, total private, and 
government. Other separations increased in health care and social assistance (+29,000) and nondurable 
goods manufacturing (+5,000) but decreased in federal government (-3,000). Other separations 
increased in the South region (+37,000) and was little changed in the other regions. (See table 6.)

Net Change in Employment

Large numbers of hires and separations occur every month throughout the business cycle. Net 
employment change results from the relationship between hires and separations. When the number of 
hires exceeds the number of separations, employment rises, even if the hires level is steady or declining. 
Conversely, when the number of hires is less than the number of separations, employment declines, even 
if the hires level is steady or rising. Over the 12 months ending in January, hires totaled 63.1 million and 
separations totaled 60.7 million, yielding a net employment gain of 2.4 million. These totals include 
workers who may have been hired and separated more than once during the year.

Annual Levels and Rates

This release contains the 2016 annual levels and rates for hires, total separations, quits, layoffs and 
discharges, and other separations. Note that annual figures for job openings are not calculated because 
job openings are measured on a stock, or point-in-time, basis rather than on a flow basis over a specified 
time period. The annual figures and additional tables are published with the release of January data each 
year. (See the Technical Note for additional information on these measures.)

Calculating annual levels and rates allows additional comparisons across years. In 2016, the annual level 
of hires was 62.7 million (43.5 percent of employment), essentially the same as in 2015. Quits rose for 
the seventh consecutive year reaching 36.1 million in 2016 (25.0 percent of employment). The layoffs 
and discharges annual level declined in 2016 to 19.9 million (13.8 percent of employment) after edging 
up the past 2 years. The annual level for other separations declined in 2016 to 4.4 million (3.1 percent of 
employment); the decline is the first since 2009. The annual level for total separations (the sum of quits, 
layoffs and discharges, and other separations) rose in 2016 for the sixth consecutive year, reaching 60.4 
million (41.9 percent of employment). (See tables 13 through 22.)
____________
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey results for February 2017 are scheduled to be 
released on Tuesday, April 11, 2017 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).


Table A.  Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally adjusted

                                 |    Job openings    |       Hires        | Total separations
                                 |--
           Category              | Jan. | Dec. | Jan. | Jan. | Dec. | Jan. | Jan. | Dec. | Jan.
                                 | 2016 | 2016 | 2017p| 2016 | 2016 | 2017p| 2016 | 2016 | 2017p
-|--
                                 |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
      LEVELS BY INDUSTRY         |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
        (in thousands)           |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
                                 |--
Total............................|5,713 |5,539 |5,626 |5,117 |5,303 |5,440 |5,033 |5,084 |5,258
 Total private...................|5,214 |5,065 |5,173 |4,760 |4,984 |5,104 |4,693 |4,754 |4,924
  Mining and logging(1)..........|   13 |   17 |   16 |   24 |   22 |   28 |   47 |   22 |   28
  Construction(1)................|  158 |  140 |  147 |  292 |  400 |  378 |  274 |  369 |  358
  Manufacturing..................|  348 |  342 |  364 |  279 |  293 |  294 |  261 |  287 |  301
   Durable goods(1)..............|  190 |  194 |  207 |  168 |  171 |  168 |  154 |  163 |  168
   Nondurable goods(1)...........|  159 |  148 |  157 |  111 |  122 |  126 |  107 |  124 |  132
  Trade, transportation,         |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   and utilities.................|1,015 |1,014 |  967 |1,050 |1,009 |1,023 |1,055 |  958 |1,004
   Wholesale trade(1)............|  198 |  182 |  173 |  134 |  130 |  135 |  139 |  142 |  141
   Retail trade..................|  633 |  650 |  612 |  747 |  672 |  683 |  723 |  631 |  670
   Transportation, warehousing,  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and utilities(1).............|  183 |  182 |  182 |  169 |  208 |  205 |  193 |  185 |  194
  Information(1).................|   97 |   81 |   86 |   82 |   79 |   82 |   83 |   82 |   83
  Financial activities...........|  340 |  357 |  393 |  213 |  190 |  236 |  196 |  162 |  211
   Finance and insurance.........|  275 |  272 |  242 |  147 |  126 |  167 |  132 |  107 |  146
   Real estate and               |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    rental and leasing(1)........|   65 |   85 |  152 |   66 |   64 |   70 |   64 |   55 |   65
  Professional and business      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services......................|1,136 |  989 |1,125 |1,123 |1,140 |1,144 |1,111 |1,132 |1,091
  Education and health           |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services......................|1,169 |1,158 |1,135 |  590 |  642 |  653 |  584 |  596 |  639
   Educational services(1).......|  106 |   93 |   84 |   82 |   78 |   76 |   99 |   73 |   84
   Health care and social        |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    assistance...................|1,063 |1,065 |1,052 |  507 |  564 |  577 |  485 |  522 |  555
  Leisure and hospitality........|  734 |  730 |  708 |  934 |1,031 |1,035 |  905 |  974 |  995
   Arts, entertainment, and      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    recreation...................|   73 |   89 |   83 |  151 |  162 |  151 |  148 |  156 |  137
   Accommodation and food        |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    services.....................|  661 |  640 |  625 |  783 |  869 |  883 |  757 |  817 |  858
  Other services(1)..............|  203 |  236 |  232 |  175 |  178 |  232 |  176 |  172 |  215
 Government......................|  499 |  474 |  452 |  358 |  319 |  336 |  340 |  330 |  334
  Federal(1).....................|   86 |  110 |   73 |   40 |   45 |   45 |   40 |   41 |   37
  State and local................|  413 |  364 |  380 |  318 |  275 |  291 |  300 |  289 |  297
   State and local education.....|  155 |  143 |  149 |  172 |  137 |  144 |  161 |  133 |  149
   State and local, excluding    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    education(1).................|  258 |  220 |  231 |  145 |  137 |  147 |  139 |  156 |  148
                                 |--
                                 |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     RATES BY INDUSTRY           |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
         (percent)               |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
                                 |--
Total............................|  3.8 |  3.7 |  3.7 |  3.6 |  3.6 |  3.7 |  3.5 |  3.5 |  3.6
                                 |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
 Total private...................|  4.1 |  4.0 |  4.0 |  3.9 |  4.1 |  4.1 |  3.9 |  3.9 |  4.0
  Mining and logging(1)..........|  1.8 |  2.5 |  2.3 |  3.3 |  3.2 |  4.1 |  6.5 |  3.3 |  4.2
  Construction(1)................|  2.3 |  2.0 |  2.1 |  4.4 |  5.9 |  5.6 |  4.1 |  5.4 |  5.3
  Manufacturing..................|  2.7 |  2.7 |  2.9 |  2.3 |  2.4 |  2.4 |  2.1 |  2.3 |  2.4
   Durable goods(1)..............|  2.4 |  2.5 |  2.6 |  2.2 |  2.2 |  2.2 |  2.0 |  2.1 |  2.2
   Nondurable goods(1)...........|  3.3 |  3.1 |  3.3 |  2.4 |  2.6 |  2.7 |  2.3 |  2.7 |  2.9
  Trade, transportation,         |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   and utilities.................|  3.6 |  3.6 |  3.4 |  3.9 |  3.7 |  3.7 |  3.9 |  3.5 |  3.7
   Wholesale trade(1)............|  3.3 |  3.0 |  2.8 |  2.3 |  2.2 |  2.3 |  2.4 |  2.4 |  2.4
   Retail trade..................|  3.9 |  3.9 |  3.7 |  4.8 |  4.2 |  4.3 |  4.6 |  4.0 |  4.2
   Transportation, warehousing,  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and utilities(1).............|  3.2 |  3.1 |  3.1 |  3.1 |  3.7 |  3.7 |  3.5 |  3.3 |  3.5
  Information(1).................|  3.4 |  2.8 |  3.0 |  3.0 |  2.8 |  3.0 |  3.0 |  3.0 |  3.0
  Financial activities...........|  4.0 |  4.1 |  4.5 |  2.6 |  2.3 |  2.8 |  2.4 |  1.9 |  2.5
   Finance and insurance.........|  4.3 |  4.2 |  3.7 |  2.4 |  2.0 |  2.7 |  2.2 |  1.7 |  2.3
   Real estate and rental        |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and leasing(1)...............|  3.0 |  3.8 |  6.5 |  3.1 |  3.0 |  3.2 |  3.0 |  2.5 |  3.0
  Professional and business      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services......................|  5.4 |  4.6 |  5.2 |  5.6 |  5.6 |  5.6 |  5.6 |  5.5 |  5.3
  Education and health           |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services......................|  5.0 |  4.8 |  4.7 |  2.6 |  2.8 |  2.9 |  2.6 |  2.6 |  2.8
   Educational services(1).......|  2.9 |  2.5 |  2.3 |  2.4 |  2.2 |  2.1 |  2.8 |  2.0 |  2.3
   Health care and social        |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    assistance...................|  5.3 |  5.2 |  5.2 |  2.7 |  2.9 |  3.0 |  2.6 |  2.7 |  2.9
   Leisure and hospitality.......|  4.5 |  4.4 |  4.3 |  6.0 |  6.5 |  6.6 |  5.9 |  6.2 |  6.3
    Arts, entertainment, and     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     recreation..................|  3.2 |  3.8 |  3.5 |  6.9 |  7.2 |  6.7 |  6.7 |  7.0 |  6.1
    Accommodation and food       |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     services....................|  4.8 |  4.5 |  4.4 |  5.9 |  6.4 |  6.5 |  5.7 |  6.1 |  6.3
   Other services(1).............|  3.5 |  4.0 |  3.9 |  3.1 |  3.1 |  4.0 |  3.1 |  3.0 |  3.8
 Government......................|  2.2 |  2.1 |  2.0 |  1.6 |  1.4 |  1.5 |  1.5 |  1.5 |  1.5
  Federal(1).....................|  3.0 |  3.8 |  2.5 |  1.4 |  1.6 |  1.6 |  1.4 |  1.4 |  1.3
  State and local................|  2.1 |  1.8 |  1.9 |  1.6 |  1.4 |  1.5 |  1.5 |  1.5 |  1.5
   State and local education.....|  1.5 |  1.4 |  1.4 |  1.7 |  1.3 |  1.4 |  1.6 |  1.3 |  1.4
   State and local, excluding    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    education(1).................|  2.8 |  2.4 |  2.5 |  1.6 |  1.5 |  1.6 |  1.5 |  1.7 |  1.6

  (1) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in the job openings series, therefore,
the seasonally adjusted and not seasonally adjusted data are identical.
  (p) Preliminary
  NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current 
Employment Statistics employment estimates and the JOLTS seasonal adjustment factors.


                         Revisions to Job Openings and Labor Turnover Data

In accordance with annual practice, the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) data have 
been revised to reflect annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics (CES), or establishment 
survey, employment estimates. The JOLTS employment levels (not published) are ratio adjusted to the 
CES employment levels, and the resulting ratios are applied to all JOLTS data elements. The result is 
the revision of 21 months of not seasonally adjusted data. Additionally, new seasonal factors have been 
developed based on the full revised JOLTS series and have been applied to the data from January 2012 
forward.

Tables B through G below present revised total nonfarm data for January through December 2016. The 
December 2016 revisions also reflect the routine incorporation of additional sample receipts into the 
final December estimates. Tables presenting revisions to total nonfarm data for January 2012 through 
December 2015 will be available later today on the JOLTS website. The website also contains all 
revised seasonally adjusted and not seasonally adjusted data. The revision tables and data can be 
accessed through the JOLTS homepage at www.bls.gov/jlt/.


Table B. Revisions in job openings data January 2016 - December 2016,
seasonally adjusted
_________________________________________________________________________________
          |                                   |
          |          Levels (in thousands)    |           Rates (percent)
   Year   |-- |--
   and    |     As     |    As   |            |     As     |    As   |
   month  | previously | revised | Difference | previously | revised | Difference
          | published  |         |            | published  |         |
_________________________________________________________________________________
   2016   |            |         |            |            |         |
January...|    5,604   |  5,713  |    109     |     3.8    |  3.8    |    0.0
February..|    5,608   |  5,566  |    -42     |     3.8    |  3.7    |    -.1
March.....|    5,670   |  5,852  |    182     |     3.8    |  3.9    |     .1
April.....|    5,845   |  5,643  |   -202     |     3.9    |  3.8    |    -.1
May.......|    5,514   |  5,582  |     68     |     3.7    |  3.7    |     .0
June......|    5,643   |  5,535  |   -108     |     3.8    |  3.7    |    -.1
July......|    5,831   |  5,973  |    142     |     3.9    |  4.0    |     .1
August....|    5,453   |  5,491  |     38     |     3.6    |  3.7    |     .1
September.|    5,631   |  5,666  |     35     |     3.7    |  3.8    |     .1
October...|    5,451   |  5,587  |    136     |     3.6    |  3.7    |     .1
November..|    5,505   |  5,631  |    126     |     3.7    |  3.7    |     .0
December..|    5,501   |  5,539  |     38     |     3.6    |  3.7    |     .1
__________|____________|_________|____________|____________|_________|___________

Table C. Revisions in hires data January 2016 - December 2016,
seasonally adjusted
_________________________________________________________________________________
          |                                   |
          |          Levels (in thousands)    |           Rates (percent)
   Year   |-- |--
   and    |     As     |    As   |            |     As     |    As   |
   month  | previously | revised | Difference | previously | revised | Difference
          | published  |         |            | published  |         |
_________________________________________________________________________________
   2016   |            |         |            |            |         |
January...|    5,125   |  5,117  |     -8     |     3.6    |  3.6    |    0.0
February..|    5,510   |  5,447  |    -63     |     3.8    |  3.8    |     .0
March.....|    5,290   |  5,297  |      7     |     3.7    |  3.7    |     .0
April.....|    5,085   |  5,038  |    -47     |     3.5    |  3.5    |     .0
May.......|    5,047   |  5,153  |    106     |     3.5    |  3.6    |     .1
June......|    5,172   |  5,176  |      4     |     3.6    |  3.6    |     .0
July......|    5,258   |  5,328  |     70     |     3.6    |  3.7    |     .1
August....|    5,268   |  5,288  |     20     |     3.6    |  3.7    |     .1
September.|    5,121   |  5,179  |     58     |     3.5    |  3.6    |     .1
October...|    5,160   |  5,200  |     40     |     3.6    |  3.6    |     .0
November..|    5,212   |  5,263  |     51     |     3.6    |  3.6    |     .0
December..|    5,252   |  5,303  |     51     |     3.6    |  3.6    |     .0
__________|____________|_________|____________|____________|_________|___________

Table D. Revisions in total separations data January 2016 - December 2016,
seasonally adjusted
_________________________________________________________________________________
          |                                   |
          |          Levels (in thousands)    |           Rates (percent)
   Year   |-- |--
   and    |     As     |    As   |            |     As     |    As   |
   month  | previously | revised | Difference | previously | revised | Difference
          | published  |         |            | published  |         |
_________________________________________________________________________________
   2016   |            |         |            |            |         |
January...|    4,977   |  5,033  |     56     |     3.5    |  3.5    |    0.0
February..|    5,159   |  5,183  |     24     |     3.6    |  3.6    |     .0
March.....|    5,096   |  5,040  |    -56     |     3.5    |  3.5    |     .0
April.....|    5,015   |  4,962  |    -53     |     3.5    |  3.4    |    -.1
May.......|    4,978   |  5,101  |    123     |     3.5    |  3.5    |     .0
June......|    4,964   |  4,940  |    -24     |     3.4    |  3.4    |     .0
July......|    4,991   |  5,001  |     10     |     3.5    |  3.5    |     .0
August....|    5,052   |  5,059  |      7     |     3.5    |  3.5    |     .0
September.|    4,936   |  4,942  |      6     |     3.4    |  3.4    |     .0
October...|    4,966   |  5,041  |     75     |     3.4    |  3.5    |     .1
November..|    5,018   |  5,075  |     57     |     3.5    |  3.5    |     .0
December..|    4,968   |  5,084  |    116     |     3.4    |  3.5    |     .1
__________|____________|_________|____________|____________|_________|___________

Table E. Revisions in quits data January 2016 - December 2016,
seasonally adjusted
_________________________________________________________________________________
          |                                   |
          |          Levels (in thousands)    |           Rates (percent)
   Year   |-- |--
   and    |     As     |    As   |            |     As     |    As   |
   month  | previously | revised | Difference | previously | revised | Difference
          | published  |         |            | published  |         |
_________________________________________________________________________________
   2016   |            |         |            |            |         |
January...|    2,851   |  2,894  |     43     |     2.0    |  2.0    |    0.0
February..|    2,955   |  2,984  |     29     |     2.1    |  2.1    |     .0
March.....|    2,948   |  2,932  |    -16     |     2.1    |  2.0    |    -.1
April.....|    2,909   |  2,902  |     -7     |     2.0    |  2.0    |     .0
May.......|    2,942   |  3,005  |     63     |     2.0    |  2.1    |     .1
June......|    2,979   |  2,980  |      1     |     2.1    |  2.1    |     .0
July......|    2,977   |  3,031  |     54     |     2.1    |  2.1    |     .0
August....|    3,009   |  3,048  |     39     |     2.1    |  2.1    |     .0
September.|    3,052   |  3,076  |     24     |     2.1    |  2.1    |     .0
October...|    3,023   |  3,078  |     55     |     2.1    |  2.1    |     .0
November..|    3,077   |  3,080  |      3     |     2.1    |  2.1    |     .0
December..|    2,979   |  3,085  |    106     |     2.0    |  2.1    |     .1
__________|____________|_________|____________|____________|_________|___________

Table F. Revisions in layoffs and discharges data January 2016 - December 2016,
seasonally adjusted
_________________________________________________________________________________
          |                                   |
          |          Levels (in thousands)    |           Rates (percent)
   Year   |-- |--
   and    |     As     |    As   |            |     As     |    As   |
   month  | previously | revised | Difference | previously | revised | Difference
          | published  |         |            | published  |         |
_________________________________________________________________________________
   2016   |            |         |            |            |         |
January...|    1,704   |  1,724  |     20     |     1.2    |  1.2    |    0.0
February..|    1,808   |  1,834  |     26     |     1.3    |  1.3    |     .0
March.....|    1,768   |  1,726  |    -42     |     1.2    |  1.2    |     .0
April.....|    1,708   |  1,669  |    -39     |     1.2    |  1.2    |     .0
May.......|    1,701   |  1,741  |     40     |     1.2    |  1.2    |     .0
June......|    1,622   |  1,609  |    -13     |     1.1    |  1.1    |     .0
July......|    1,639   |  1,609  |    -30     |     1.1    |  1.1    |     .0
August....|    1,692   |  1,660  |    -32     |     1.2    |  1.1    |    -.1
September.|    1,513   |  1,516  |      3     |     1.0    |  1.0    |     .0
October...|    1,569   |  1,593  |     24     |     1.1    |  1.1    |     .0
November..|    1,619   |  1,660  |     41     |     1.1    |  1.1    |     .0
December..|    1,635   |  1,624  |    -11     |     1.1    |  1.1    |     .0
__________|____________|_________|____________|____________|_________|___________

Table G. Revisions in other separations data January 2016 - December 2016,
seasonally adjusted
_________________________________________________________________________________
          |                                   |
          |          Levels (in thousands)    |           Rates (percent)
   Year   |-- |--
   and    |     As     |    As   |            |     As     |    As   |
   month  | previously | revised | Difference | previously | revised | Difference
          | published  |         |            | published  |         |
_________________________________________________________________________________
   2016   |            |         |            |            |         |
January...|      422   |    415  |     -7     |     0.3    |  0.3    |    0.0
February..|      397   |    365  |    -32     |      .3    |   .3    |     .0
March.....|      380   |    382  |      2     |      .3    |   .3    |     .0
April.....|      398   |    390  |     -8     |      .3    |   .3    |     .0
May.......|      334   |    355  |     21     |      .2    |   .2    |     .0
June......|      363   |    351  |    -12     |      .3    |   .2    |    -.1
July......|      375   |    362  |    -13     |      .3    |   .3    |     .0
August....|      351   |    350  |     -1     |      .2    |   .2    |     .0
September.|      370   |    351  |    -19     |      .3    |   .2    |    -.1
October...|      373   |    370  |     -3     |      .3    |   .3    |     .0
November..|      322   |    334  |     12     |      .2    |   .2    |     .0
December..|      355   |    375  |     20     |      .2    |   .3    |     .1
__________|____________|_________|____________|____________|_________|___________

Posted by on March 16, 2017.

Categories: Trends

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